2012年元月管理类联考英语真题及答案
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        2012年元月管理类联考英语真题及答案

        日期:2016-08-17    点击:1245

        Section I Use of English

        Directions:

        Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

         

        Millions of Americans and foreigners see G.I.Joe as a mindless war toy, the symbol of American military adventurism, but that’s not how it used to be. To the men and women who __1__in World War II and the people they liberated, the G.I. was the__2__man grown into hero ,the pool farm kid torn away from his home ,the guy who__3__all the burdens of battle ,who slept in cold foxholes, who went without the __4__ of food and shelter ,who stuck it out and drove back the Nazi reign of murder .this was not a volunteer soldier ,not someone well paid , __5__an average guy , up__6__the best trained, best equipped, fiercest, most brutal enemies seen in centuries.

            His name is not much. G. I. is just a military abbreviation __7__Government Issue ,and it was on all of the article __8__ to soldiers .And Joe? A common name for a guy who never__9__it to the top .Joe Blow ,Joe Maraca …a working class name. The United States has __10__ had a president or vice president or secretary of state Joe.

            GI .Joe had a __11__career fighting German, Japanese, and Korean troops. He appears as a character, or a __12__ of American personalities, in the 1945 movie The Story of G.I. Joe, based on the last days of war correspondent Ernie Pyle. Some of the soldiers Pyle__13__portrayed themselves in the film. Pyle was famous for covering the__14__side of the war, writing about the dirt-snow -and-mud soldiers, not how many miles were __15__ or what towns were captured or liberated, His reports __16__ the “willie” cartoons of famed Stars and Stripes artist Bill Maul-den. Both men__17__the dirt and exhaustion of war, the __18__ of civilization that the soldiers shared with each other and the civilians: coffee, tobacco, whiskey, shelter, sleep. __19__ Egypt, France, and a dozen more countries, G.I. Joe was any American soldier, __20__ the most important person in their lives.

        1.[A] performed  [B]served       [C]rebelled     [D]betrayed

        2.[A] actual   [B]common     [C]special      [D]normal

        3.[A]bore    [B]eased        [C]removed     [D]loaded

        4.[A]necessities       [B]facilities       [C]commodities  [D]properties

        5.[A]and            [B]nor          [C]but         [D]hence

        6.[A]for            [B]into          [C] form       [D]against

        7.[A]meaning       [B]implying      [C]symbolizing  [D]claiming

        8.[A]handed out     [B]turn over     [C]brought back  [D]passed down

        9.[A]pushed        [B]got          [C]made        [D]managed

        10.[A]ever         [B]never         [C]either       [D]neither

        11.[A]disguised     [B]disturbed      [C]disputed     [D]distinguished

        12.[A]company     [B]collection       [C]community   [D]colony

        13.[A]employed     [B]appointed      [C]interviewed   [D]questioned

        14.[A]ethical        [B]military [      [C]political      [D]human

        15.[A]ruined        [B]commuted      [C]patrolled     [D]gained

        16.[A]paralleled     [B]counteracted    [C]duplicated    [D]contradicted

        17.[A]neglected     [B]avoided        [C]emphasized   [D]admired

        18.[A]stages        [B]illusions        [C]fragments    [D]advances

        19.[A]With         [B]To            [C]Among       [D]Beyond

        20.[A]on the contrary [B] by this means   [C]from the outset [D]at that point

         

        Section II Reading Comprehension

        Part A

        Directions: Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

        Text 1

            Homework has never been terribly popular with students and even many parents, but in recent years it has been particularly scorned. School districts across the country, most recently Los Angeles Unified, are revising their thinking on his educational ritual. Unfortunately, L.A. Unified has produced an inflexible policy which mandates that with the exception of some advanced courses, homework may no longer count for more than 10% of a student’s academic grade.

            This rule is meant to address the difficulty that students from impoverished or chaotic homes might have in completing their homework. But the policy is unclear and contradictory. Certainly, no homework should be assigned that students cannot do without expensive equipment. But if the district is essentially giving a pass to students who do not do their homework because of complicated family lives, it is going riskily close to the implication that standards need to be lowered for poor children.

            District administrators say that homework will still be a part of schooling; teachers are allowed to assign as much of it as they want. But with homework counting for no more than 10% of their grades, students can easily skip half their homework and see very little difference on their report cards. Some students might do well on state tests without completing their homework, but what about the students who performed well on the tests and did their homework? It is quite possible that the homework helped. Yet rather than empowering teachers to find what works best for their students, the policy imposes a flat, across-the-board rule.

            At the same time, the policy addresses none of the truly thorny questions about homework. If the district finds homework to be unimportant to its students’ academic achievement, it should move to reduce or eliminate the assignments, not make them count for almost nothing. Conversely, if homework matters,it should account  for  a  significant  portion of the grade.Meanwhile,this  policy does nothing to ensure that the homework students receive is meaningful or appropriate to their age and subject ,or that teachers  are  not  assigning  more than they are willing to review and correct.

            The homework rules should be put on hold while the school board, which is responsible for setting educational policy, looks into the matter and conducts public hearings. It is not too late for L.A. Unified to do homework right.

        21. It is implied in paragraph 1 that nowadays homework_____.

        [A] is receiving more criticism              [B]is no longer an educational ritual

        [C]is not required for advanced courses       [D]is gaining more preferences

        22. L.A.Unified has made the rule about homework mainly because poor students_____.

        [A]tend to have moderate expectations for their education

        [B]have asked for a different educational standard

        [C]may have problems finishing their homework

        [D]have voiced their complaints about homework

        23. According to Paragraph 3, one problem with the policy is that it may____.

        [A]discourage students from doing homework   [B]result in students' indifference to their report cards

        [C]undermine the authority of state tests        [D]restrict teachers' power in education

        24. As mentioned in Paragraph 4, a key question unanswered about homework is whether_____.

              [A] it should be eliminated                      [B]it counts much in schooling

        [C]it places extra burdens on teachers              [D]it is important for grades

        25. A suitable title for this text could be______.

        [A]Wrong Interpretation of an Educational Policy     [B]A Welcomed Policy for Poor Students

        [C]Thorny Questions about Homework             [D]A Faulty Approach to Homework

         Text2

            Pretty in pink: adult women do not remember being so obsessed with the color, yet it is pervasive in our young girls’ lives. It is not that pink is intrinsically bad, but it is such a tiny slice of the rainbow and, though it may celebrate girlhood in one way, it also repeatedly and firmly fuses girls’ identity to appearance. Then it presents that connection, even among two-year-olds, between girls as not only innocent but as evidence of innocence. Looking around, I despaired at the singular lack of imagination about girls’ lives and interests.

            Girls’ attraction to pink may seem unavoidable, somehow encoded in their DNA, but according to Jo Paoletti, an associate professor of American Studies, it is not. Children were not color-coded at all until the early 20th century:                                                                                                                                                In the era before domestic washing machines all babies wore white as a practical matter, since the only way of getting clothes clean was to boil them. What’s more, both boys and girls wore what were thought of as gender-neutral dresses. When nursery colors were introduced, pink was actually considered the more masculine color, a pastel version of red, which was associated with strength. Blue, with its intimations of the Virgin Mary, constancy and faithfulness, symbolized femininity. It was not until the mid-1980s, when amplifying age and sex differences became a dominant children’s marketing strategy, that pink fully came into its own, when it began to seem inherently attractive to girls, part of what defined them as female, at least for the first few critical years.

            I had not realized how profoundly marketing trends dictated our perception of what is natural to kids, including our core beliefs about their psychological development. Take the toddler. I assumed that phase was something experts developed after years of research into children’s behavior: wrong. Turns out, according to Daniel Cook, a historian of childhood consumerism, it was popularized as a marketing trick by clothing manufacturers in the 1930s.

            Trade publications counseled department stores that, in order to increase sales, they should create a “third stepping stone” between infant wear and older kids’ clothes. It was only after “toddler” became a common shoppers’ term that it evolved into a broadly accepted developmental stage. Splitting kids, or adults, into ever-tinier categories has proved a sure-fire way to boost profits. And one of the easiest ways to segment a market is to magnify gender differences - or invent them where they did not previously exist.

         

        26. By saying "it is...the rainbow"(Line 3, Para.1),the author means pink______.

        [A]should not be the sole representation of girlhood

        [B]should not be associated with girls' innocence

        [C]cannot explain girls' lack of imagination

        [D]cannot influence girls' lives and interests

        27.According to Paragraph 2, which of the following is true of colors

        [A]Colors are encoded in girls' DNA.

        [B]Blue used to be regarded as the color for girls.

        [C]Pink used to be a neutral color in symbolizing genders.

        [D]White is preferred by babies.

        28. The author suggests that our perception of children's psychological development was much influenced by_____.

        [A]the marketing of products for children    [B]the observation of children's nature

        [C]researches into children's behavior       [D]studies of childhood consumption

        29. We may learn from Paragraph 4 that department stores were advised to_____.

        [A]focus on infant wear and older kids' clothes      [B]attach equal importance to different genders

        [C]classify consumers into smaller groups         [D]create some common shoppers' terms

        30. It can be concluded that girls' attraction to pink seems to be____.

        [A] clearly explained by their inborn tendency       [B] fully understood by clothing manufacturers

        [C] mainly imposed by profit-driven businessmen    [D]well interpreted by psychological experts

         

        Text 3

            In 2010, a federal judge shook America's biotech industry to its core. Companies had won patents for isolated

        DNA for decades---by 2005 some 20% of human genes were parented. But in March 2010 a judge ruled that genes

        were unpatentable. Executives were violently agitated. The Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO), a trade group, assured members that this was just a “preliminary step” in a longer battle.

            On July 29th they were relieved, at least temporarily. A federal appeals court overturned the prior decision, ruling that Myriad Genetics could indeed hold patents to two genes that help forecast a woman's risk of breast cancer. The chief executive of Myriad, a company in Utah, said the ruling was a blessing to firms and patients alike.

            But as companies continue their attempts at personalized medicine, the courts will remain rather busy. The Myriad case itself is probably not over Critics make three main arguments against gene patents: a gene is a product of nature, so it may not be patented; gene patents suppress innovation rather than reward it; and patents' monopolies restrict access to genetic tests such as Myriad's. A growing number seem to agree. Last year a federal task-force urged reform for patents related to genetic tests. In October the Department of Justice filed a brief in the Myriad case, arguing that an isolated DNA molecule “is no less a product of nature... than are cotton fibers that have been separated from cotton seeds.”

            Despite the appeals court's decision, big questions remain unanswered. For example, it is unclear whether the sequencing of a whole genome violates the patents of individual genes within it. The case may yet reach the Supreme Court.

            AS the industry advances, however, other suits may have an even greater impact. Companies are unlikely to file many more patents for human DNA molecules---most are already patented or in the public domain .Firms are now studying how genes interact, looking for correlations that might be used to determine the causes of disease or predict a drug’s efficacy,.Companies are eager to win patents for connecting the dots, explains Hans Sauer, a lawyer for the BIO.

            Their success may be determined by a suit related to this issue, brought by the Mayo Clinic, which the Supreme Court will hear in its next term. The BIO recently held a convention which included sessions to coach lawyers on the shifting landscape for patents. Each meeting was packed.

        31. It can be learned from paragraph I that the biotech companies would like____.

        [A]their executives to be active    [B]judges to rule out gene patenting

        [C]genes to be patentable        [D]the BIO to issue a warning

        32. Those who are against gene patents believe that____.

        [A]genetic tests are not reliable                    [B]only man-made products are patentable

        [C]patents on genes depend much on innovation       [D]courts should restrict access to gene tic tests

        33. According to Hans Sauer, companies are eager to win patents for____.

        [A]establishing disease correlations                [B]discovering gene interactions

        [C]drawing pictures of genes                      [D]identifying human DNA

        34. By saying “each meeting was packed” (line4, para6) the author means that ____.

        [A]the Supreme Court was authoritative       [B]the BIO was a powerful organization

        [C]gene patenting was a great concern        [D]lawyers were keen to attend conventions

        35. Generally speaking, the author’s attitude toward gene patenting is____.

        [A]critical      [B]supportive       [C]scornful      [D]objective

         

        Text 4

            The great recession may be over, but this era of high joblessness is probably beginning. Before it ends, it will likely change the life course and character of a generation of young adults. And ultimately, it is likely to reshape our politics, our culture, and the character of our society for years.

            No one tries harder than the jobless to find silver linings in this national economic disaster. Many said that unemployment, while extremely painful, had improved them in some ways; they had become less materialistic and more financially prudent; they were more aware of the struggles of others. In limited respects, perhaps the recession will leave society better off. At the very least, it has awoken us from our national fever dream of easy riches and bigger houses, and put a necessary end to an era of reckless personal spending.

            But for the most part, these benefits seem thin, uncertain, and far off. In The Moral Consequences of Economic Growth, the economic historian Benjamin Friedman argues that both inside and outside the U.S. ,lengthy periods of economic stagnation or decline have almost always left society more mean-spirited and less inclusive, and have usually stopped or reversed the advance of rights and freedoms. Anti-immigrant sentiment typically increases, as does conflict between races and classes.

            Income inequality usually falls during a recession, but it has not shrunk in this one,. Indeed, this period of economic weakness may reinforce class divides, and decrease opportunities to cross them--- especially for young people. The research of Till Von Wachter, the economist in Columbia University, suggests that not all people graduating into a recession see their life chances dimmed: those with degrees from elite universities catch up fairly quickly to where they otherwise would have been if they had graduated in better times; it is the masses beneath them that are left behind.

            In the internet age, it is particularly easy to see the resentment that has always been hidden within American society. More difficult, in the moment, is discerning precisely how these lean times are affecting society’s character. In many respects, the U.S. was more socially tolerant entering this recession than at any time in its history, and a variety of national polls on social conflict since then have shown mixed results. We will have to wait and see exactly how these hard times will reshape our social fabric. But they certainly will reshape it, and all the more so the longer they extend.

        36.By saying to find silver linings”(Line 1,Para.2the author suggest that the jobless try to___.

        [A]seek subsidies from the government       [B]explore reasons for the unemployment

        [C]make profits from the troubled economy    [D]look on the bright side of the recession

        37. According to Paragraph 2,the recession has made people_____.

        [A]realize the national dream         [B]struggle against each other

        [C]challenge their lifestyle           [D]reconsider their lifestyle

        38. Benjamin Friedman believed that economic recessions may_____.

        [A]impose a heavier burden on immigrants         [B]bring out more evils of human nature

        [C]Promote the advance of rights and freedoms      [D]ease conflicts between races and classes

        39. The research of Till Von Wachther suggests that in recession graduates from elite universities tend to _____.

        [A]lag behind the others due to decreased opportunities

        [B]catch up quickly with experienced employees

        [C]see their life chances as dimmed as the others’

        [D]recover more quickly than the others

        40. The author thinks that the influence of hard times on society is____.

        [A]certain      [B]positive        [C]trivial          [D]destructive

         

        Part B

        Directions: Read the following text and answer the questions by finding information from the left column that corresponds to each of the marked details given in the right column. There are two extra choices in the right column. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEERT 1. (10 points)

         

        “Universal history, the history of what man has accomplished in this world, is at bottom the History of the Great Men who have worked here,” wrote the Victorian sage Thomas Carlyle. Well, not any more it is not.

        Suddenly, Britain looks to have fallen out with its favorite historical form. This could be no more than a passing literary craze, but it also points to a broader truth about how we now approach the past: less concerned with learning from forefathers and more interested in feeling their pain. Today, we want empathy, not inspiration.

        From the earliest days of the Renaissance, the writing of history meant recounting the exemplary lives of great men. In 1337, Petrarch began work on his rambling writing De Viris Illustribus - On Famous Men, highlighting the virtus (or virtue) of classical heroes. Petrarch celebrated their greatness in conquering fortune and rising to the top. This was the biographical tradition which Niccolo Machiavelli turned on its head. In The Prince, the championed cunning, ruthlessness, and boldness, rather than virtue, mercy and justice, as the skills of successful leaders.                                                                                                                                                                   

        Over time, the attributes of greatness shifted. The Romantics commemorated the leading painters and authors of their day, stressing the uniqueness of the artist's personal experience rather than public glory. By contrast, the Victorian author Samuel Smiles wrote Self-Help as a catalogue of the worthy lives of engineers, industrialists and explores. "The valuable examples which they furnish of the power of self-help, of patient purpose, resolute working and steadfast integrity, issuing in the formulation of truly noble and manly character, exhibit," wrote Smiles. "What it is in the power of each to accomplish for himself" His biographies of James Walt, Richard Arkwright and Josiah Wedgwood were held up as beacons to guide the working man through his difficult life.

        This was all a bit bourgeois for Thomas Carlyle, who focused his biographies on the truly heroic lives of Martin Luther, Oliver Cromwell and Napoleon Bonaparte. These epochal figures represented lives hard to imitate, but to be acknowledged as possessing higher authority than mere mortals.

        Not  everyone was  convinced by  such bombast.The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of  class struggles,wrote Marx and Engel in The Communist Manifesto. For them, history did nothing; it possessed no immense wealth nor waged battles: “It is man, real, living man who does all that.” And history should be the story of the masses and their record of struggle. As such, it needed to appreciate the economic realities, the social contexts and power relations in which each epoch stood. For:“Men make their own history, but they do not make it just as they please; they do not make it under circumstances chosen by themselves, but under circumstances directly found, given and transmitted from the past.”

            This was the tradition which revolutionized our appreciation of the past. In place of Thomas Carlyle, Britain nurtured Christopher Hill, EP Thompson and Eric Hobsbawm. History from below stood alongside biographies of great men. Whole new realms of understanding - from gender to race to cultural studies - were opened up as scholars unpicked the multiplicity of lost societies. And it transformed public history too: downstairs became just as fascinating as upstairs.

         


        [A] emphasized the virtue of classical heroes

        41. Petrarch

        [B] highlighted the public glory of the leading artists

        42.Niccolo Machivellli

        [C] focused on epochal figures whose lives were hard to imitate

        43. Samuel Smiles

        [D] opened up new realms of understanding the great men in history

        44. Thomas Carlyle

        [E] held that history should be the story of the masses and their record of struggle

        45. Marx and Engels

        [F] dismissed virtue as unnecessary for success leaders


        [G]depicted the worthy lives of engineer industrialists and explorers

         

        Section III Translation

        46. Directions: Translate the following text from English into Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER

        SHEET2.(15 points) 

             When people in developing countries worry about migration, they are usually concerned at the prospect of their

        best and brightest departure to Silicon Valley or to hospitals and universities in the developed world .These are the kind of workers that countries like Britain ,Canada and Australia try to attract by using immigration rules that privilege college graduates .

            Lots of studies have found that well-educated people from developing countries are particularly likely to emigrate .A big survey of Indian households in 2004 found that nearly 40% of emigrants had more than a high-school education, compared with around 3.3% of all Indians over the age of 25.This "brain drain "has long bothered policymakers in poor countries ,They fear that it hurts their economies ,depriving them of much-needed skilled workers who could have taught at their universities ,worked in their hospitals and come up with clever new products for their factories to make .

         

        Section IV Writing

        Part A

        47. Directions

        Suppose you have found something wrong with the electronic dictionary that you bought from an online store the other day, Write an email to the customer service center to

        1) make a complaint and

        2) demand a prompt solution

        You should write about 100words on ANSERE SHEET 2

         

        Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter, Use "Zhang Wei "instead.

         

        Part B

         

        48. write an essay based on the following table .In your writing you should

        1) describe the table ,and

        2) give your comments

        You should write at least 150 words (15points)

         

        某公司员工工作满意度调查

        年龄-------满意度

        满意

        不清楚

        不满意

        小于等于40

        16.7%

        50.0%

        333%

        41-50

        0.0%

        36.0%

        64.0%

        大于50

        40.0

        50.0%

        10.0%


        三、英语部分

        1【答案】

         【解析】从空后的句子他们解放的人们可以看出,空前的句子表示的应该是参加了第二次大战的男人和女人。只有serve服兵役的意思,所以选B。其他都不符合题意。 

        2【答案】B

         【解析】空内信息应该是与hero英雄意思相对,后面的分句说他背井离乡,经历了很多苦难,显然这里应该是说由普通人平凡人(common man)成长为英雄,所以选B 

        3【答案】A

         【解析】本题考查的是词语的搭配关系,承担战争带来的负担,应该用动词bearshoulder,所以这里选Abore

        4【答案】A

           【解析】necessities表示生活必需品,空外信息foodshelter(食物和住宿)这些就是维持生存最起码的条件。Facilities是设备设施,commodities商品,properties财产,均不符合题意。 

        5【答案】C

         【解析】notbut不是,而是表转折,不是自愿兵,也没有高的报酬,而是一个普通人。所以选

        6【答案】D

        解析】这道题主要考查介词的搭配。根据up______(the best trained, best equipped, fiercest, most brutal).enemies可以知道是起来反抗敌人,所以选D选项against 

        7【答案】C

         【解析】GI.在军事上是Government Issue 的缩略语,所以,GL.这个符号就是象征着这个全称Government Issue。选C 

        8【答案】A

          【解析】该句意思为,GI.这个符号出现在给士兵分发的所有物品上,hand out 分发,发放符合题意。Turn over 移交bring back带回pass down传承,一代一代传下来在句意上都说不通。 

        9【答案】C

           

        10【答案】B

         【解析】结合第9题的分析可知,空所在句子实际上是进一步举例说明Joe没有取得大的成就:从来都不曾出现叫做Joe的总统、副总统、国务卿。根据句意只能选neverB 

        11. 【答案】D

         【解析】本题考察词汇辨析。空所在的语境为:GI .Joe_ _ 的军旅生涯,曾和德国,美国以及韩国的军队作战。由此语境确定选D,其他几项均不符合题意。

        12【答案】B

          【解析】本题考察词汇辨析。空所在语境为:他身上体现着美国人的某些特色,或身上结合了美国人的诸多特性。结合语境,可知作者想表达在他身上有很多美国人的典型特色,因而选B 

        13【答案】C

            【解析】本题考察词汇辨析。空所在语境为:Pyle _ _ 的士兵也本色出演了该片。结合上句对Ernie Pyle的介绍,可知为一战地记者(war correspondent),确定答案

        14【答案】D

            【解析】本题考察词汇辨析。空所在语境为:Pyle擅长报导战争的_ _面,报导这些浑身是尘土,积雪以及泥浆的士兵。Pyle报导重在士兵而非战争上,因而可确定他关注的应更多的是人性。所以选D

        15【答案】D

         【解析】本题考察词汇辨析。ruined意为“破坏”;commuted意为“通勤,经常往来于..”; patrolled意为“巡逻”;gained意为“获得,达到”。本句应表达: Pyle并不关注士兵行军多少里,或是占领或解放了多少地方。gain在这里是指士兵行军达到多少公里。 

        16【答案】

        【解析】本题考察词汇辨析。空所在语境为:他的报导与Bill Maulden的是_____的。紧接的一句话揭示了本题的答案,两者都(Both men)。由此可确定两人的报导应是类似的。因而,选Acounteracted 表示抵制,中和,对抗 duplicated表示 复制,重复contradicted表示反驳,与 ... 矛盾 

        17【答案】C

        【解析】本题考察逻辑搭配。空所在语境为:两者都战争的丑恶,以及所带来的损耗。由上题可知道,Pyle更加注重战争中的士兵,因而他不可能是忽略(neglected),避免(avoided)或是钦佩(admired)战争所带来的这一些负面的东西,因而本题选C 

        18【答案】C

         

        19【答案】B

         【解析】本题考察介词的用法。空所在语境为:_ _ 印度,法国,以及其他国家,G.I. Joe可以是任何美国士兵。结合文章表达,应是对于这些人而言。因而,确定答案B 

        20【答案】D

         【解析】本题考察逻辑搭配。空所在语境为:G.I. Joe是他们生命中最重要的人。原题四个选项分别表示on the contrary 正相反 [B] by this means用这种方式[C]from the outset从一开始[D]at that point表示就那点(方面)来说D为最佳答案。

         

         Part A

        Text 1

         21【答案】A

         【解析】文章首段首句指出家庭作业一直不受学生,还有许多家长的欢迎,特别是到了最近几年,家庭作业还遭到了人们的不屑。后面的内容则是简单提出美国各学区对于家庭作业的作为,引出L.A.Unified针对家庭作业所指定的政策。该题题干问的是根据文章首段,目前家庭作业…”,关键词是家庭作业,因此答案从首句就能判断出来,题干的nowadays对应原文中的in recent years,所选答案则是对it has been particularly scorned.的同义改写,故答案选A 

        22【答案】C

         【解析】文章第二段首句明确说到这项政策的制定是为了解决贫困家庭的学生在完成家庭作业中可能遇到的困难。这与题干所问制定该政策的主要原因以及贫困学生就对应起来了,故答案选C 

        23【答案】A

         【解析】文章第三段第二句指出,如果家庭作业仅占分值的10%,学生很容易少做一半的家庭作业,在他们的成绩单上也不会有什么差别。”“家庭作业仅占分值10%这是L.A.Unified 制定出的家庭作业政策的内容,因此,从这句话可以看出有了这项政策,既然成绩单上不会有区别,学生就会选择少做一半的家庭作业,这个意思对应选项为A 

        24【答案】B

        【解析】题干关键词a key question unanswered 对应第四段的首句the policy addresses none of the truly thorny questions about homework.而这个问题的具体内容则是从if开始说明,因此这道题要解出正确答案,需要对后面的内容进行分析,如果学区认为家庭作业对应学生的学业不重要,学区应致力于减少或者删除家庭作业,使家庭作业不起任何作用;相反,如果家庭作业重要,它应该在学业中占重要的一部分。从这两句的内容中,我们可以简单归纳出,L.A.Unified所指定的这项政策到目前为止还未对家庭作业对于学生学业是否有重要作用给出确定答案,故答案选B 

        25【答案】A

        26【答案】A

         【解析】题干的意思是通过说粉色是彩虹中多么微小的一小部分,作者的意思是        。根据文章第一段第三行,but作为连词表示后面的内容是对前面内容的否定,but之前的意思是说粉色本身并不是不好,而后买面的such a tiny slice of 是指是彩虹中多么微小的一部分,由此可以得出,粉色并不代表女孩童年生活的全部。所以,选A.

        27【答案】B

         【解析】题干是要根据文章第二段,判断哪个是对颜色理解正确的选项。根据文章第二段第一句话,前半部分是说女孩对于粉色的关注看起来好像是不可避免的,不知怎么的,就跟存在与她们的基因里一样but之后是对前者的否定,所以很明显,A项是错误的。根据第二段的第7行,pink was actually considered the more masculine color,可以得出,C选项错误。对于D选项,根据第二段第45行,可以得知,儿童穿白色是属于以前的情况,并非现在的事实,而D选项的时态是指一般现在时,时态不符合。根据文章8行,9行,可以得知,blue symbolized femininity,可以得知,蓝色曾经被认为是女孩子的颜色,符合文章题意。所以,选B.

        28【答案】A

         【解析】题干作者认为我们对于儿童心理发展的看法,多受____的影响。从原文第三段的首句我之前没有意识到,我们对孩子们所固有特性的认知深受市场趋势的支配,包括我们对他们心理发展的核心看法,这一句可以明显看出相关儿童市场及其产品在左右人们对二年同心理发展的看法上所起的重要作用。而B、C、D均曲解了原文的意思,故本题正确答案为A

        29【答案】C

        【解析】题干从第4段我们可以看出,给出商店的建议是___ 选项A关注婴儿和稍大一些的孩子的衣服,回顾原文,第4段第1句话讲的是为了增加销路,厂家应该开创在婴儿衣服和稍大一些的孩子衣服之前的一些商机,而并没说是要关注两者的衣服,故A错误;B把不同性别放在同等重要的地位,此说法原文中并未提及,原文第4段只是在最后一句说道分割市场最简便的方法之一就是来扩大性别之间的差异性,故B错误;D创造一些购买者的术语,作者只是举出了一个购买术语的例子,但这不是作者的建议,真正是的建议是C,故C为正确答案。

        30【答案】C

         【解析】题干我们能推断出,女孩们对粉色的着迷看起来是___文章最后两段都在探讨市场和厂家对人们看法和观念的诱导,因此C选项正合题意,其他选项都不正确。

        Text 3

        31【答案】C         

         【解析】文章首段首句提到In 2010, a federal judge shook America's biotech industry to its core.,2010年,联邦的一项决定震惊了美国的生物科技产业。后面接着提到,这项决定是genes were unpatentable,意思是与基因相关的项目不能够获得专利权,而executives were violently agitated,agitated(愤怒的)可以推断出正确答案为C,即生物科技产业希望与基因相关的项目能够获得专利权。 

        32【答案】B                

         【解析】文章第三段提到了反对基因相关的项目能够获得专利权的三个理由。第一个是,基因是自然的产品;第二个是,基因获得专利会压制创新;第三个是,基因专利的垄断会限制基因测试。B项最符合原文 

        33【答案】A    

         

        34【答案】C          

         【解析】文章最后一段提到了BIO最近要召开的一个会议。Each meeting was packed,这句话中的packed的原义为打包,包装,而在此句中的意思是:挤满,塞满。即会议挤满了人,从而反映了大家对基因专利的关注,故真确答案为C。答案A与题干无关;答案B属于主观臆断;答案D是干扰项,训练律师只是这次大会的一部分内容,以偏概全。

        35【答案】D              

          【解析】从整体上看,作者不仅提到了希望获得基因专利全的生物科技产业为此所作出的努力,同时也提到了反对者反对的理由,文章第四段进一步提到了基因获得专利过程中遇到的实际问题。故而,作者多基因专业的态度是客观的,即答案D  

        Text 4

        36【答案】D

         【解析】题目定位在段首句。所以应该是整段意思的概括。第二句说,失业虽然很痛苦,但也从很多方面带来好处。冒号后面具体说他们从观念上,生活方式上发生了改变。所以选择DAB均为无关选项,C选项中说make profit,是侧重指获得经济利益,所以与原文不符。

        37【答案】D

         【解析】第二句冒号后面:他们不再那么追求物质,经济上更节俭;同时意识到其他人在努力奋斗,即D选项中reconsider their lifestyle,重新审视他们的生活方式。A项有干扰性,但文中说将我们从梦想中唤醒,所以不对。BC没有提到。

        38【答案】B

         【解析】定位在第三段第二句开始。接下来一句通过关键词mean-spirited and less inclusive B选项正是该句的改写,故为正确答案;A属于过度推理;CD意思明显弄反了

        39【答案】D

         【解析】定位在第四段第三句冒号后面:高等学府的毕业生能够很快调整自身,达到未遭遇危机时的状态。D选项与之含义相符。C明显不对,not all people graduating into a recession see their life chances dimmed表明,不是所有的毕业生都认为前途渺茫。B项无中生有。A与原文相反。

        40【答案】A

         【解析】由最后一句可知,they certainly will reshape it表示困难时期的一定会对社会产生影响的,所以certain与之相符。由最后一段无法看出是positive还是destructive,所以BD均不正确。A项是无足轻重的,明显不对。

         

        Part B

        41.【答案A

         解析】本题答案锁定在第三自然段,第二行讲到Petrarch began...highlighting the virtue of classical heroes即彼特拉克在他的书中强调古典英雄的美德。答案A与此是完全对应的。

        42.【答案F

         解析】此题定位于第三自然段第五行,重点理解词组turn on its head,意思为to change sth completely,所以说尼可洛,马基雅维利的观点与彼特拉克的观点是相反的,后面有进一步说明了, virtue并不是成功领导者的技能。

        43.【答案G

        解析】此题定位于第四自然段的第四行,Self-help as a catalogue of the worthy lives of engineers, industrialists and explorers, 塞缪尔·斯迈尔斯在他的书《成事在己》里面讲到了工程师,实业家,探险家的有意义的生活,G与此是对应的

        44.【答案C

         解析】此题定位于第五自然段第三行,these epochal figures represented lives hard to imitate,托马斯,卡莱尔描述了一些穿越苦难的划时代的人物。C对应了此答案。

        45.【答案E

         解析】此题定位于第六自然段第五行,history should be the story of the masses and their record of struggle,答案E与此句是完全对应的。

        Section III Translation

        46【参考译文】

        发展中国家的人们为移民忧虑时,他们通常担忧的是离开自己国家去去硅谷或发达国家的医院和大学的最优秀、最聪明的群体的前景。这些劳动者正是像英国、加拿大、澳大利亚这样的国家通过赋予受过大学教育者以特权的移民法想要吸引的人群。

        很多研究发现,来自发展中国家的那些受到良好教育的人们极有可能选择移居他国。2004年对印度家庭开展了一项广泛的调查,结果显示约40%的移民受过高中以上的教育。相比而言,在所有年龄超过25岁的印度人中,受过高中以上教育的人数比例只有约3.3%人才流失一直困扰着贫穷国家的政策制定者们。他们担心这会对本国的经济造成损害,造成国家急需的技工的流失。这些技术人员可能曾在他们的大学教学,也可能曾在他们的医院工作,或者曾经构想出智能化的新产品让他们的工厂去生产。

         

        47 .【解析】今年翻译话题是贫穷国家的人才流失问题,话题内容比较好理解,从而在很大程度上降低了翻译的难度。但还是有几个地方有的同学可能会比较困惑。

        1)文章第一句的主句需要我们去认真思考下。they are usually concerned at the prospect of their best and brightest departure to Silicon Valley or to hospitals and universities in the developed world

        这句话中concern at 的宾语是prospect。看到of我们要立即想到A of B翻译为BA在这里,A指的就是prospect,关键就是找出B指代的是什么。而这一点恰恰是本句理解的难点B指的是 “their best and brightest翻译为 “他们中最优秀、最聪明的(群体)

           2 第一段第二句话关键在于对两个that引导的从句的理解。第一个that从句作定语修饰workers,第二个that作定语修饰rules。这里是考研英语中经常出现的一个考点:从句的嵌套。对于这样的句子我们的关键在于准确找到先行词,根据一个句子如果有N个连词就必定有N+1个动词的原则来切分开长句。

           3brain drain这个词组是在报刊杂志中经常出现的,意思是人才流失。这个词语通过上下文逻辑应该能大概猜出它的意思,但是在考研考场上,尤其是在完成了阅读和作文后很多同学可能已经耗费了大量的体力和脑力,对于这个单词的猜测可能会很费力,甚至会放弃。这个说明我们再平时的学习过程中应该注意积累这样的热点词汇。

           4“They fear that it hurts their economies, depriving them of much-needed skilled workers who

        对于这个句子的理解关键在于对于depriving之后成分在句子结构中作用的理解。Deprive本意是剥夺,在这里很显然不适合直译。我们根据逻辑关系可以翻译为技工的流失clever这个单词很简单,同学们都认识,在这里翻译为聪明的很显然说不通,clever除了聪明的还有精巧之意,再结

        合这里说的是技术工人的重要性,我们可以翻译为智能的

         

        Section IV Writing

        47【参考范文】

        Dear Sir or Madam,

            I am writing this letter to make a complaint about the quality of the electronic dictionary I bought from your store the other day.

            The reason for my dissatisfaction is that I found the electronic dictionary cant reach my satisfaction. In the first place, the outlook is quite different from what it is placed online. In addition, the number of the vocabulary contained in    it is too small. Id like to buy an electronic dictionary with a large vocabulary.

            I appreciate it very much if you could change another satisfying one for me. And I would like to have this matter settled by next Friday. Thank you for your consideration and I will be looking forward to your favorable reply.

         

        Yours sincerely,

                                                                                         Zhang Wei

         

        48【参考范文】

        Here demonstrates a table with regard to the degree of satisfaction on work of staff in a company ranging from three different age groups, under 40, 40 to 50, and above 50 respectively. Specifically speaking, people in their forties are least satisfied with their present work situation at the rate of 64.0%. In comparison, people over 50 are most satisfied with their current situation at 40.0%. A noticeable figure is that half the staff under the age of 40 have no idea about their conditions.

        There prove to be a number of reasons accounting for it. First and foremost, it has something to do with the structure of staffs age, especially with their working and life experience in which they play a pivotal role. What is more, this social issue is likely to be intertwined with the organization of the company where they serve.

        In line with my personal thinking, there are two major factors that should be taken into account seriously. On one hand, the general people concerned should enhance their awareness in this respect. What is more, the relevant

        company should increase the benefits for their employees. Only if these measures are adopted effectively can people work in peace and content and companies benefit most.


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